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意甲竞猜 > 企业知识 > 企业孵化器是什么?

企业孵化器是什么?

企业孵化器的历史现状与未来
更新日期:2017-5-16 15:25:55    来源:angkorpop.com浏览次数:3960次

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企业孵化器作用
企业经管者,尤其是创业者,应该在创业过程中节省时间、少走弯路、营造创业者聚集效应,提高创业成功率;厦门大学的孙大海博士认为孵化器“通过为初创企业提供生产研发空间以及基础设施服务来降低创业成本并提高效率;连接风险投资机构和初创企业,降低双方存在的信息不对称;提供一种合理分摊创业者创业成本和创业风险的工具”。

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企业孵化器的由来

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企业孵化器发展现状
当前,创业创新是中国国策,在中国国务院推出 “大众创业,万众创新”发展战略氛围下,长江南北创业热情高涨,创业孵化机构应运而生,蓬勃发展。

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企业孵化器趋势
自1959年第一家孵化器“贝特维亚工业中心”在美国诞生至今,孵化器行业走过了近50年的发展历程,截止2006年全美孵化器数量约1200家(LindaKnopp,2007),为美国科技型中小企业创业和新经济发展作出了卓越的贡献;中国第一家孵化器武汉东湖创业中心创立于1987年,至今已有20年的历史,截至2006年底,全国孵化器总数已达到548个,据不完全统计,2006年毕业企业创造的营业总收入达1745亿元,已经成为中国区域科技创新的重要力量、科技成果产业化的重要基地。

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企业孵化器的社会功能
意甲竞猜 组建孵化器的目的主要是繁荣当地经济、解决就业问题,鉴于这样一种目的,国外孵化器的建立并不局限某一个行业,也不一定是新建企业,只要对促进经济发展有利即可。

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企业孵化器运营工作
企业孵化器一定要通过运营才能产生价值,而不是单纯拿国家补贴,在耗尽资源后,自动消灭。登尼特陈浩天认为:企业孵化器运营就是价值链条运营、商业模式运营、品牌营销运营、人脉关系运营、企业团队运营、资本增值运营,从各个不同运营角度,打造一个的企业终极目标,那就是创利增值。然后,通过企业创利增值,来达到为社区为社会创造价值的终极目标。

企业孵化器的发展类型
托管型和策划型
托管型企业孵化器的服务模式就是把企业部分或全部业务托管给另一家企业,自己却省去了很多操作环节。托管型孵化器面向的人群为初次创业者或高科技及互联网创业者。其提供的典型服务一般包括:免费或付费的办公场地、定期的创业培训、项目毕业路演培训、投资人对接等。托管型孵化器为创业者提供了企业生存的基础设施,使创业者可以全身心投入到产品的设计和研发中。例如,目前很多大学为支持大学生创业,都建立了创业园。园区以极低的价格将工位租给大学生创业者。这是典型的有政府支持的托管型孵化器。此外,还有很多企业家、投资人为了支持创业、孵化优质的高科技及互联网项目,成立了私营的托管型孵化器。例如,李开复先生创办的创新工场、联想旗下的联想之星孵化基地等。此外,很多国外的孵化器机构也在积极进入中国市场。托管型孵化器为有想法的年轻人提供了良好的创业平台,进入之后借助平台的资源,创始企业可以快速度过婴儿期,有机会获得投资发展壮大。

策划型企业孵化器:策划型孵化器一般依托于大型的咨询策划公司,面向人群为有一定经济基础的多次创业者或者传统中小微企业家。入驻策划型孵化器的企业可以分为两类。一类是企业初创阶段找不到合适的商业模式而需要进行资源对接的企业。另一类是企业由于社会、经济环境的变化而遇到瓶颈需要转型的企业。这些企业家往往“身怀绝技”,在某一领域内拥有一定的人脉、技术等资源,但是由于行业的局限或者未能及时顺应时代的潮流而陷入困境。
策划型孵化器依据其多年的企业服务经验,为企业提供一对一的咨询服务,通过自有基金直接投资或者对接外部投资机构投资,同时,策划型孵化器以企业联盟的形式搭建企业资源平台,共享孵化器的资本、咨询和人脉等资源。由于策划型孵化器对管理团队的业务素质要求较高,因此国内的策划型孵化器数量不多。但是孵化的项目质量高,具有较高的投资价值。

2、专业型和综合型
意甲竞猜 城际同类联营商,创立了登尼特创业孵化服务中心,提供了创业孵化系统集成服务。通过市场调查不难发现,目前专业型孵化器比较多,容易配置。而综合型的比较少,发展不起来,因为综合型孵化器需要具备一定规模和实力。

ZHUANYEXINGFUHUAQIJIUSHIZAIMOUYIGEZHUANYEDELINGYUSHANG,BANGZHUQIYEJIEJUEZHUANYESHANGSHIXIANG,ZHUANYEFUHUAQIYOUHENDUO,BIRU:LVSHISHIWUSUO、HUIJISHISHIWUSUO、GONGCHENGCHENGBAOJIGOU。

意甲竞猜 ZONGHEXINGFUHUAQIQIANGHUAYITIAOLONG、YIZHANSHI、YITIHUADEFUHUAFUWUMOSHI,WEIQIYEJIEJUESUOYOUWENTI,ZHEIZHONGQIYEXUYAOHENDUOZIYUAN。BIRU:XUEQUFUHUAYUAN,MAIKENXI、DENGNITE。

企业孵化器新型服务
美国全美孵化器协会研究资料显示,成功孵化器的服务项目包括:网络支持;互联网或信息技术服务;咨询;联系战略合作者;商业计划支持协助获取天使投资或风险投资;联系大学研发机构;帮助可靠的学生实习或就业;管理团队发展;财务管理支持;知识产权支持;法律服务;提供专业实验设施;人力资源管理支持;产品或技术开发支持;与技术相关工艺的支持;国际贸易支持等。北方交通大学的李岱松博士将中国企业孵化器提供的服务整理为以下四类:1)一般性服务,包括场地、商务设施等;2)管理咨询服务,包括一般性商务代理服务和制定战略、管理制度、人力资源管理制度、市场分析、专业知识培训等;3)投融资服务,包括协助获得政府资金、申请担保贷款、直接向企业进行投资、与风险投资结合等:4)专业技术服务。投资服务是孵化器核心服务功能之一。

意甲竞猜 XIANGGANGDENGNITEDUIQIYEFUHUAQIJINXINGGAILIANG,CHUANGJIANLEXINXINGQIYEFUHUAQIFUWUMOSHIHEFUWUNEIRONG。DENGNITEJIANLILEQIYEFUHUAJICHENGTIXI,SHIXIANLESHIJIANYUKONGJIANTONGBUFUHUA,RUANJIANYUYINGJIANTONGBUFUHUA,RENWENYURENSHITONGBUFUHUA,GONGNENGYUZHINENGTONGBUFUHUADEJICHUTIXI。QIYEFUHUAJICHENGTIXIHAILIYONGLEYIYUANHUAFUWU,ERYUANHUATUOZHAN,BASHANGCHUANGYESHEJI、BACENGFAZHANSIWEI,BADAFAZHANZHANLVE,SHIDAWENHUATIXIDEJINGGUANFAZHANLINIAN,JINYIBUBACHUANGYEFUHUAJICHENGPINGTAIJINXINGYOUHUA、KUORONG、TISHENG,XINGCHENGLEJINKEGONG,TUIKESHOUDEFAZHANGEJU。

1、时间与空间孵化服务
时空孵化服务(时间流程服务和空间孵化服务)是创业孵化中心的主流服务。创业时间规划和空间事项配搭如何有机地结合起来,往往是创业者渴望探寻的。时间流程服务是根据时间顺序向创业者提供的各种创业孵化服务。时间流程服务包含五个阶段:创业评估阶段,调研决策阶段、策划设计阶段,企业设立阶段,企业运营阶段。空间运营服务是根据创业者的能力空间、资源空间,来逐步设计企业空间、拓展市场空间、提升资本增值空间。

KONGJIANYUNYING,YECHENGSHANGYEYUNYINGHUOQIYEYUNYING,SHICHUANGYEZHEANZHAOSHIXIANSHEJIDESHANGYEMOSHI,TONGGUOGEZHONGYUNYINGSHOUDUANHUODEYINGSHOUDESHANGYEHUODONG,SHICHUANGYEZHEZUIJUTIAOZHANXINGHECHIXUXINGDESHANGYESHOUDUAN。SHANGYEYUNYINGMOSHIBAOKUO:JIAZHIYUNYING、MOSHIYUNYING、SHICHANGYUNYING、ZIBENYUNYING、XIANGMUYUNYING、TUANDUIYUNYING、RENMAIYUNYINGHEPINGTAIYUNYING,DENGDENG。

意甲竞猜 SHIKONGJICHENGSHICHUANGYEFUHUADEZHULIU,YESHICHUANGYEFUHUADEGUANJIAN,YOUSHIJIANBIYOUKONGJIAN,YONGSHIJIANHUANKONGJIAN,YONGKONGJIANHUANSHIJIAN。CHUANGYEJIHUASHUXUYAOJUYOUSHIKONGGAINIAN,SHICHANGTUOZHAN、RENWUBUSHU、JIXIAOKAOHEDOUXUYAOJUYOUSHIKONGGAINIAN。

2、软件与硬件配套服务
创业孵化除了主流业务之外,创业配套服务和创业配套设施显得极其重要,这里分为软件配套设施和硬件配套设施,创业者如果能共享中心资源和配套设施,不但能达到开源节流的效果,还能达到应用虚拟资本来成功创业。

意甲竞猜 SHUODAORUANJIAN,DAJIAMASHANGHUIXIANGDAOZHINENGRUANJIAN、DIANNAOBIANCHENG、APPYINGYONG,ERPZIYUANGUIHUA、CRMKEHUGUANXIGUANLI、FMCAISHUIGUANLIHEHRMRENSHIGUANLIRUANJIANDENGDENG。DANSHI,ZHENZHENGYAOBAQIYEZUOHAODERUANJIANZAITISHIREN,ZHENZHENGDERUANJIANSHIRENDESIWEIMOSHIHEJINGGUANFAZHANZHIHUI。YINCI,DENGNITEZHUZHONGYANFACHUANGYEJIHUA、SHANGYEMOSHI、JINGYINGSHOUDUAN、FAZHANZHANLVE、GONGZUOJINENG、PINPAIYINGXIAOSHEJI、GELEIFENXIBAOGAO,DENGDENG。JIANLIDASHUJUKU、JIANLINAOKUZHIKU,TUIDONGZIXUNGONGXIANG、ZIYUANGONGXIANGHEXINXIJIAOYIHUDONG。TONGGUODASHUJUXITONG,ZIDONGSHIXIANGONGQIUPEIDUI、TOURONGPEIDUI、SHANGXIAYOUDUIJIE、CHANTOURONGDUIJIE,XINGCHENGYIGECHANYEJIAZHILIANTIAODEZHICHENGPINGTAI。

CHUANGYEFUHUAZHONGXINDEYINGJIANPEITAOYINGYONGJINYOU,XIAODEYOUBANGONGSHESHI、HUIYISHIZULIN、CANGCHUWULIUSHESHI、WANGLUOFUWUQIZULIN、YIDIWUPINCHUCUNFUWU、YUNYINGFUWUQICHUCUNFUWU;ZHONGDEYOUXIEZILOUZULIN;DADEYOUCHUANGYEGUSHEJI、FUHUADASHA、FUHUAYUNYINGSHEJI,YIJIQITADECHANYELIANTIAOYINGJIANPEITAODENGDENG。

意甲竞猜 RUANYINGJICHENGSHIZUIJINMIDE,DIANNAORUANJIANBUNENGMEIYOUDIANNAOYINGJIANZUOWEIZAITI,SHOUJIYINGJIANBUNENGMEIYOUYINGYONGRUANJIANZUOWEIGONGJU。ZUOSHENGYIBUNENGMEIYOUBANGONGCHANGSUOHEBANGONGSHESHIDEYINGJIAN,ZUOSHENGYIBUNENGMEIYOUSHANGYEMOSHI、GONGZUORENYUAN、GONGZUOMOSHIZUOWEIRUANJIAN。RUANYINGJIANJIANGJIUDESHIRONGHE、PEITAO、SHIYONG。

3、人文与人事管理服务
意甲竞猜 人文和人事服务是一种强化服务,只有把人强化到一定标准,才能把企业做强做大。人人懂人文,人人懂人事,但创业路上,成功率只有10%到20%之间。因此,人文管理和人事管理在创业孵化中显得特别重要。

人文管理从基础来看,可以有:员工心态管理、公司规章制度设计、企业经管准则制定,合作模式研究、合作合同设计;从提升角度看,人文管理服务包含:可以有商道管理、商德管理、信用体系管理、企业理念设计、意甲竞猜设计等等。
                                                 
人事管理可以有人事绩效管理和人力资本管理。一个是即时生效的,一个是长远增值的。但是,要实现这两个功能目标,还需要建立一套完整的人事管理机制和规章制度。

意甲竞猜 RENSHIGUANLIBUNENGLIKAIRENWENGUANLI,ERZHEJIEHEJIUHUICHANSHENGCHUDUTEDEYIJIAJINGCAI。

4、功能与智能优化服务
创业启动后,功能优化、智能优势是保持核心竞争力的根本保证。因此,创业者必须在功能化、智能化、模式化、体系化、网络化、全球化六方面下苦功夫,不断优化,有序发展。

意甲竞猜 CHUANGYEFUHUAZHONGXINGONGNENGSHEJIHEGONGNENGFUWUBAOKUOBADAMOKUAI:ZHUTISHEJI、YEWUDINGWEI、PINPAIYINGXIAO、KEFUGENJIN、RENSHIGUANLI、CAISHUIGUANLI(ZICHANGUANLI)、WENANGUANLI、LIUCHENGGUANLI。ZHEISHIQIYEFAZHANZUIJIBENDEGONGNENGMOKUAI。

意甲竞猜 ZHIHUIHUAFAZHANSHIWEILAISHEHUIFAZHANQUSHI,QIYEZHINENGHUAFAZHANYEBULIWAI。CHUANGYEFUHUAZHONGXINYIDASHUJUKUWEIJICHU,ZHUBUFAZHANXINGYEZHIKU、QIYENAOKU,JIHEXINXI、ZHISHI、WENHUA、ZHIHUIZIYUAN,ZHENGHETILIAN,XINGCHENGXINXIHUA、ZHINENGHUACHANYE,XIANGZHONGGUOZHIZAO2025,XIANGSHIJIEGONGYE4.0,XIANGQIYEZHINENGJICHENGFUWUFAZHAN,CHUANGZAOZHONGGUOJIQIRENPINPAI,ZHONGGUOZHINENGFUWUPINPAI。CHUANGYEZHINENGFUWUBAOKUO:ZHINENGYUANZHUOYANTAO、QIYEJIEJUEFANGAN、QIYETIXIJIANSHE、QIYEXITONGJICHENG、ZHISHICHANQUANZHUANRANG,DENGDENG。

QIYEBUDANYAOZUOHAOGONGNENGMOKUAI,HAIXUYAOZUOHAOZHINENGMOKUAI。LIANGZHONGDEJICHENGCAINENGRANGJISHUSHENGHUA、ZHIHUISHENGHUA。

5、运营与管理专业服务
意甲竞猜 设立企业后,面临的就是企业经营和管理两道门槛。企业运营孵化和企业管理孵化对初创企业来讲需求甚殷。

意甲竞猜 QIYEYUNYINGFUHUAJIANGYIDASHUJUKUWEIJICHU,SHIXIANCHANYEJIAZHILIANTIAOYUNYING,SHANGYEMOSHIYUNYINGHECHANYEZIBENYUNYING。TONGSHI,DAZAODULIYUNYINGTI,BINGRANGDULIYUNYINGTIJIAZHIZUIDAHUA。

QIYEGUANLIFUHUAJIANGYIQIYEYUNYINGWEIJICHU,ZUOHAOSHIJIANYUKONGJIANGUANLI、RENWENYURENSHIGUANLI、ZIBENYUZICHANGUANLI、LIUCHENGYUZHILIANGGUANLI。QIYEGUANLIGAOSHENMOCE,QIYEGUANLIFUHUALINGYUKEYIJIEJUEXINCHUANGQIYEZAIGUANLISHANGDEQUEXIAN。

登尼特企业孵化中心正在不断努力,整合更多资源,改善企业孵化环境,做好创业层孵化、经营层孵化、管理层孵化、发展层孵化的系统集成服务。同时,进一步推动行业层孵化、产业层孵化、事业层孵化的智能孵化产业发展,形成层层递进,环环相扣的集合式孵化平台。

(香港文化出版社 记者 吴玉荣) 

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